Industrial Dust Collection Systems
Dust Collection Ductwork from US Duct
US Duct is a producer and designer of industrial dust collection systems used primarily in the "source capture" and subsequent cleaning of dust, fume and mist from the work place. US Duct assists reps, contractors and companies in the proper design and conveyance of material-laden air. By taking advantage of our specialists' years of experience, sales people and end-users alike can ensure that their dust collection ductwork is built exactly to their specifications and applications.
Using our in-depth knowledge of current trends, US Duct helps clients develop innovative ductwork solutions to solve problems that arise as equipment changes and manufacturing processes evolve. Our diverse client base has a wide range of application needs; this gives us the experience needed to provide design and fabrication services to meet any requirements.
To speak with a specialist, contact US Duct today, or read on for a detailed breakdown of industrial dust collection systems.
Industrial Dust Collection Systems Components
A dust collection system is necessary for the collection of dust, fume, mist, vapor or chemicals whenever they are produced as a by-product of the manufacturing process. Removal is required for the plant hygiene, employee health and safety, efficient production, and product quality.
There are many components to the system but primarily they consist of at least one OR ALL of the following.
The collector acts as the cleaning element of the system, passing air thru some kind of media and separating the air from the fugitive material. There are many kinds of material, ranging from simple woven bags to intricately woven materials and complex polymers.
The fan pulls (sucks) the contaminated air away from the work place, machine and worker. It is the "moving" force. Fans are sized according to the volume of air required and the pressure need to move the air through the duct, the collector and the filter media.
The duct system is the conduit that contains the dust-laden air as it is moved to the collector. However it is more than just the duct and should involve the following:
- Proper design of hoods so as to effectively use the available air to capture the greatest amount of dust.
- The duct itself should be properly sized to keep the air moving at the correct velocity and prevent the material from "settling-out" and further obstructing the flow.
- Balancing apparatus (gates, butterflies, etc.) that help direct and control the air flow beyond what sizing the duct can do.
- Special parts that help remove excess fluid in oil mist applications and sparks from welding/cutting applications.
- Safety features such as backblast dampers and spark detection/suppression to protect against explosions and subsequent impact.
Designing A Dust Collection System: Factors To Consider
Each application is unique and must be treated as such. The following is an overview of the criteria that should be considered and the principles that must be incorporated in designing an effective system.
Material and Volume of Air (Cubic Feet per Minute)
Each material has physical characteristics that impact the collection and filtering process. Foremost in the collection is the amount of air needed to collect the material. Heavier material will, of course, need more air to capture it.
A certain amount of CFM (cubic feet of air in a minute) must be present to address the dust, the amount of dust and the area in which the dust is produced. More air is needed to pick up wood chips than welding fume; more air for a wood planer than for a chop saw; and more air over the top of a mixing vat than for a spot welder. Often, the CFM required is dictated by the pick-up or hood size already present on the machinery.
Material and Velocity (Feet per Minute)
Once the material is collected, it is important to consider the velocity with which the material needs to be conveyed to keep it from "dropping out" into the duct. This is easily understood by considering the different velocities of wind that are required to move a leaf across a parking lot, as compared to the velocity needed to move a heavier object.
To use two extremes as an example, a wood chip typically requires a velocity of 4500 FPM (feet per minute) to keep it moving, while sawdust remains mobile at 3500 FPM. On the other end of the spectrum, welding fumes will move easily with 1500 FPM and not "drop out" into the duct.
Material and Abrasiveness
Increasing the velocity for the sake of a higher velocity is not necessarily a desirable thing. The faster you have to move the air and dust, the higher the pressure and therefore the greater the horsepower required to move the greater volume of air through the same confined space. Abrasiveness can become an issue as well; materials become more abrasive at higher velocities.
Material and Kst Value (propensity and magnitude)
Much attention should be given to ensuring that material does not explode and protecting the worker in the case where it does. Any material of an unknown nature should be tested and the advice of an expert obtained. In general, a system collecting explosive dust should have an automatic blast gate to prevent a deflagration in the collector from returning to the work area. If the cleaned air is returned to the work area, then an abort gate is required. As for the ducting, all ductwork between the collector and these gates is required to be bolted, flanged and of a gauge equal to the collector.
When it comes to safety, early detection and prevention is key. A spark detection system utilizes infrared detection that signals the release of water mist into the duct to extinguish sparks. These systems are typically installed in the trunk line just prior to the backblast, and require a minimum of 30 feet (based on velocity) of straight duct.
Collecting air with a hood involves more than just creating a range hood-style apparatus close to the source and hoping that the air will be drawn in. Air behaves as a fluid and therefore has dynamics that work against air in front of the hood being drawn in. A good way to think about this is to visualize pushing a bucket down into a large tub of water. The water flows in over the side even if the bucket is forced down quickly. Likewise, air will come in from the side of a hood before it will enter the face. Adding a perimeter flange can limit this effect as can the addition of baffles. Bell mouths also can serve as effective hoods.
With so many factors to consider when designing a dust collection system, it's best to consult an expert. US Duct can help design a system that suits your application and meets your specific requirements.